The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) is a joint program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS).
The U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) strives to serve the public interest by helping people to live knowledgeably and safely with volcanoes and other natural hazards including earthquakes, landslides, and debris flows, in the western United States and elsewhere in the world. Our goal is to provide accurate and timely information pertinent to the assessment, warning, and mitigation of natural hazards. We assess hazards before they occur by identifying and studying past hazardous events, their products, ages, and areas that would be affected by similar events in the future. We provide warnings during volcanic crises by intensively monitoring restless volcanoes and interpreting results in the context of current hazards assessments. We investigate and report on hazardous events after they occur to hone our assessment and prediction skills and to provide information for use in land-use management, emergency response plans, and public education.
The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall in Washington D.C. We are devoted to a better understanding of Earth's active volcanoes and their eruptions during the last 10,000 years. GVP activities can be divided into two main efforts that are closely linked: reporting of current eruptions around the world, and building databases and archival resources for Earth's active volcanoes and their eruptions. In doing so we provide a global context for our planet's active volcanism.
HVO is part of the Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Our staff conducts research on the volcanoes of Hawai`i and works with emergency-response officials to protect people and property from earthquakes and volcano-related hazards.
The Long Valley Observatory is based out of Menlo Park, California where several science teams work together. Data from monitoring instruments located in and around the Long Valley Caldera are sent by radio and satellite telemetry to the scientists' computers where they are automatically processed in real time for immediate analysis by scientists. The computers include an automatic paging system that alerts scientists of significant changes in activity 24 hours a day.
The overall objectives of the Volcano Hazards Program are to advance the scientific understanding of volcanic processes and to lessen the harmful impacts of volcanic activity. The Volcano Hazards Program monitors active and potentially active volcanoes, assesses their hazards, responds to volcanic crises, and conducts research on how volcanoes work to fulfill a Congressional mandate (P.L. 93-288) that the USGS issue "timely warnings" of potential volcanic hazards to responsible emergency-management authorities and to the populace affected. Thus, in addition to obtaining the best possible scientific information, the program works to effectively communicate its scientific findings to authorities and the public in an appropriate and understandable form.
The Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) was created as a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and University of Utah to strengthen the long-term monitoring of volcanic and earthquake unrest in the Yellowstone National Park region. Yellowstone is the site of the largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features in the world and the first National Park. YVO is one of the five USGS Volcano Observatories that monitor volcanoes within the United States for science and public safety.