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Grey Literature in Nursing: Definitions

What is grey literature?

Grey literature (or gray literature) is materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations. Organizations that produce grey literature include:

  • government departments and agencies
  • civil society or non-governmental organizations
  • academic centers and departments
  • private companies and consultants.


Document Types

This guide is based upon information in the following article:

Phillips, K., Woods, S., & Dudash, A.  (2023).  Incorporating gray literature in an evidence-based nursing curriculum:  A how-to-guide.

portal:  Libraries and the Academy, 23(3), 517-535.